Kihansi Spray Toad
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The Kihansi spray toad has very specific habitat requirements. Their preferred habitat is dominated by moss-covered rocks and mossy vegetation. This toad is endemic to the Kihansi Falls of the Kihansi River Gorge in the Udzungwa Mountains of eastern Tanzania.
An ovoviviparous species, the Kihansi spray toad gives birth to live young, bypassing the tadpole stage. The and little toadlets are usually about five millimetres in length.
The lifespan of the Kihansi spray toad in the wild is unknown, but in captivity they have been recorded live about three years.
The Kihansi spray toad is a diurnal species and feeds on small insects, including flies and fly larvae. It also eats some mites and springtails. In captivity, the Kihansi spray toad has been known to feign death or eject water from its bladder when disturbed.
The Kihansi spray toad is currently categorized as "extinct in the wild" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), though the species persists in captive breeding populations.
A tiny toad of just two centimeters in length.
In captivity, the Kihansi spray toad has been known to feign death or eject water from its bladder when disturbed.
This toad does not have a tadpole stage. The female gives birth to live toadlets.
Why are they Endangered?
The extinction in the wild of the Kihansi spray toad was mainly due to habitat loss following the construction of Kihansi Dam in 1999, which reduced the amount of water coming down from the waterfall into the gorge by 90 percent. This led to the spray toad's microhabitat being compromised, as it reduced the amount of water spray, which the toads were reliant on.
The Kihansi spray toad has been the subject of intensive conservation measures and has now been successfully reintroduced to the wild—more than 2,400 toads were successfully released in the wild. This is the first time that an amphibian that was extinct in the wild has been returned to its native habitat.